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Egypt History Timeline


5000 BC-3500 BC   The predynastic period of Egypt.


4241 BC  The Egyptian calendar was established.


3100 BC -2650 BC  Archaic (Thinite) Period covers the first two dynasties


3100 BC   Earliest evidence of hieroglyphic writing in Egypt 


3100 BC   The legendary king, Menes, unites the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis


2800 BC-2300 BC  Old Kingdom period, covers the 3rd to 6th dynasties. The age of Pyramids


2550 BC-2490 BC  The great Pyramids of Giza were built for Khufu (Cheops) and Khephren (Chephren) and Mycerinus   


2181 BC-2040 BC   Collapse of the Sixth Dynasty and beginning of the First Intermediate Period from 7th to 10th dynasties


2160 BC-2140BC    Egypt’s 9th and 10th Dynasties ruled over this period from the capital at Herakleopolis.


2040 BC    The beginning of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom from 11th to 13th dynasties


2040 BC- 2010 BC Mentuhotep reunited Egypt and restored peace and prosperity


1640 BC-1550 BC   Collapse of the Middle Kingdom (1640 BC; beginning of the Second Intermediate Period


1674 BC    Sheshi, a Hyksos ruler from Asia, conquered Memphis (Egypt). Shesi ruled at the beginning of the 15th Dynasty. The Hyksos invaded Egypt in horse-drawn chariots.


1570BC-1546BC    Ahmose, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty.  His sister-wife was Queen Ahmosep-Nefertary. During his reign he defeated the Hyksos and expelled out of Egypt.


1570BC-1070BC    Egypt’s New Kingdom Period.  Egypt’s peak period


1400BC    The Temple of Hatshepsut was built in Luxor


1380 BC   Building of the Temple of Luxor by Amenhotep III


1347 BC-1339 BC   Reign of Tutankhamon 


1182 BC-1151 BC   Reign of Ramses III. In this period  Hebrew’s migrated out of Egypt to Palestine  


1070 BC-712 BC   Collapse of New Kingdom (1070 BC; Third Intermediate Period 


750BC-719BC  Piye (Piankhy) ruled Kush (Nubia) and soon moved to extend his rule over Egypt. Kashta and his son, Piankhy, invaded Egypt and Piankhy became pharaoh of Egypt. The Nubian King Piye conquered the weakened and disunited Egypt.


712 BC-332 BC Late period. During this period Egypt was ruled by Assyrian, Ethiopian and Persian Kings.


520BC-486BC  Darius, ruler of Persia, occupied Egypt and is considered the 2nd ruler of the 27th Dynasty


332BC   Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and founded Alexandria


330BC   Alexandria became the capital of Egypt


69BC     Cleopatra , daughter of Ptolemy XII, was born


30BC      Rome gained control over Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide


30 BC-395 AD  Reign of  Augustus Caesar; Roman period 


395 AD   Roman Empire divided into two empires; Egypt controlled by Byzantium


641 AD   Conquest of Egypt by the Muslim Arabs (Omar, the second caliph); Islamic period   


1250    The Mamlukes, slave soldiers, seized control of the Egyptian Sultanate and ruled until 1517


1517    Ottoman Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.


1798  Napoleon Bonaparte's forces captured Alexandria but are expelled by the British and the Turks


1801  Egypt once more becomes part of the Ottoman empire.


1882    British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir and took control of Egypt


1914     Egypt becomes a British protectorate.


1922     Sultan Fuad I was crowned king of Egypt. England recognized Egypt and gained it’s independence


1936     King Farouk ascended to the throne.


1949    Moslem Brotherhood chief Hassan el Banna was assassinated Cairo


1949    Committee of the Free Officers' Movement developed


1952  Gamal Abdul Nasser leads a coup by the Free Officers' Movement, now known as the July 23 Revolution


1952    General Mohammad Najib established an Egyptian government and became the 1st president of Egypt


1953  Egypt is declared a Republic by Najib.


1954  Nasser becomes prime minister and later, in 1956, president.


1956  Invasion of Egypt by Britain, France and Israel due to the nationalization of the Suez Canal.


1967  The Six-Day War. Egypt, Jordan and Syria go to war with Israel and are defeated.


1970   Abdul Nasser died of a heart attack at 52. Anwar Sadat replaced Nasser.


1971 - Egypt's new constitution is introduced and the country is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.


1981  Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated by Jihad members.


1981  Husnu Mubarak is selected as the new president by a National Referendum 


2004 Funeral of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat is held in Cairo.


2005 President Mubarak is re-elected for a fifth consecutive term


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