Egypt History Timeline
5000 BC-3500 BC
The predynastic period of Egypt.
The Egyptian calendar was established.
3100 BC -2650 BC
Archaic (Thinite) Period covers the first two
Earliest evidence of hieroglyphic writing in Egypt
The legendary king, Menes, unites the upper and lower kingdoms
of Egypt and moved his capital to Memphis
2800 BC-2300 BC
Old Kingdom period, covers the 3rd to 6th
dynasties. The age of Pyramids
2550 BC-2490 BC
The great Pyramids of Giza were built for Khufu (Cheops) and
Khephren (Chephren) and Mycerinus
2181 BC-2040 BC
Collapse of the Sixth Dynasty and beginning of the First
Intermediate Period from 7th to 10th
Egypt’s 9th and 10th Dynasties ruled over this period from the
capital at Herakleopolis.
The beginning of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom from 11th to
2040 BC- 2010 BC
Mentuhotep reunited Egypt and restored peace and prosperity
1640 BC-1550 BC
Collapse of the Middle Kingdom (1640 BC; beginning of the Second
Sheshi, a Hyksos ruler from Asia, conquered Memphis (Egypt).
Shesi ruled at the beginning of the 15th Dynasty. The Hyksos
invaded Egypt in horse-drawn chariots.
Ahmose, Pharaoh of Egypt, ruled in Egypt’s 17th Dynasty. His
sister-wife was Queen Ahmosep-Nefertary. During his reign he
defeated the Hyksos and expelled out of Egypt.
Egypt’s New Kingdom Period. Egypt’s peak period
The Temple of Hatshepsut was built in Luxor
Building of the Temple of Luxor by Amenhotep III
1347 BC-1339 BC
Reign of Tutankhamon
1182 BC-1151 BC
Reign of Ramses III. In this period Hebrew’s migrated out of
Egypt to Palestine
BC Collapse of New Kingdom (1070 BC; Third Intermediate
Piye (Piankhy) ruled Kush (Nubia) and soon
moved to extend his rule over Egypt. Kashta and his son, Piankhy,
invaded Egypt and Piankhy became pharaoh of Egypt. The Nubian
King Piye conquered the weakened and disunited Egypt.
712 BC-332 BC
Late period. During this period Egypt was ruled by Assyrian,
Ethiopian and Persian Kings.
Darius, ruler of Persia, occupied Egypt and is considered the
2nd ruler of the 27th Dynasty
the Great invaded Egypt and founded Alexandria
became the capital of Egypt
Cleopatra , daughter of Ptolemy XII, was born
Rome gained control over Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra committed
Reign of Augustus Caesar; Roman period
Roman Empire divided into two empires; Egypt controlled by
Conquest of Egypt by the Muslim Arabs (Omar, the second caliph);
The Mamlukes, slave soldiers, seized control of the Egyptian
Sultanate and ruled until 1517
Ottoman Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by
the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.
Napoleon Bonaparte's forces captured Alexandria but are
expelled by the British and the Turks
1801 Egypt once more becomes part of the Ottoman empire.
British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir
and took control of Egypt
Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
Sultan Fuad I was crowned king of Egypt. England recognized
Egypt and gained it’s independence
King Farouk ascended to the throne.
Moslem Brotherhood chief Hassan el Banna was assassinated
Committee of the Free Officers' Movement developed
Gamal Abdul Nasser leads a coup by the Free Officers' Movement,
now known as the July 23 Revolution
General Mohammad Najib established an Egyptian government and
became the 1st president of Egypt
Egypt is declared a Republic by Najib.
Nasser becomes prime minister and later, in 1956, president.
Invasion of Egypt by Britain, France and Israel due to the
nationalization of the Suez Canal.
The Six-Day War. Egypt, Jordan and Syria go to war with Israel
and are defeated.
Abdul Nasser died of a heart attack at 52. Anwar Sadat replaced
- Egypt's new constitution is introduced and the country is
renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated by Jihad members.
Husnu Mubarak is selected as the new president by a National
Funeral of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat is held in Cairo.
President Mubarak is re-elected for a fifth consecutive term